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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Jan 6. pii: S1198-743X(18)30858-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.12.038. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of preoperative oral antibiotic use on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection after primary knee or hip replacement: a retrospective study with a 1-year follow-up.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: honkanen.meeri.p@student.uta.fi.
2
Coxa, Hospital for Joint Replacement, Tampere and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Antibiotics are used for various reasons before elective joint replacement surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate patients' use of oral antibiotics before joint replacement surgery and how this affects the risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

METHODS:

Patients having a primary hip or knee replacement in a tertiary care hospital between September 2002 and December 2013 were identified (n = 23 171). Information on oral antibiotic courses purchased 90 days preoperatively and patients' chronic diseases was gathered. Patients with a PJI in a 1-year follow-up period were identified. The association between antibiotic use and PJI was examined using a multivariable logistic regression model and propensity score matching.

RESULTS:

One hundred and fifty-eight (0.68%) cases of PJI were identified. In total, 4106 (18%) joint replacement operations were preceded by at least one course of antibiotics. The incidence of PJI for patients with preoperative use of oral antibiotics was 0.29% (12/4106), whereas for patients without antibiotic use it was 0.77% (146/19 065). A preoperative antibiotic course was associated with a reduced risk for subsequent PJI in the multivariable model (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.73). Similar results were found in the propensity score matched material (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18-0.65).

CONCLUSIONS:

The use of oral antibiotics before elective joint replacement surgery is common and has a potential effect on the subsequent risk for PJI. Nevertheless, indiscriminate use of antibiotics before elective joint replacement surgery cannot be recommended, even though treatment of active infections remains an important way to prevent surgical site infections.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic use; Prevention; Prosthetic joint infection; Risk factors; Surgical site infection

PMID:
30625412
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmi.2018.12.038

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