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Pediatr Emerg Care. 2019 Jan 7. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001698. [Epub ahead of print]

Etiology, Management, and Outcome of Pediatric Epistaxis.

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Munich, Munich.
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Bonn.
Internal Medicine II-Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany.



Epistaxis in children is one of the most common causes for seeking professional medical help. Patients may be treated by several disciplines with various approaches to pediatric epistaxis. We reviewed cases of pediatric epistaxis from an otorhinolaryngologist's point of view.


A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients younger than 18 years presenting with epistaxis to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at the University of Bonn, Germany.


Sixty episodes of epistaxis in 58 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 10.1 ± 4.5 years. In terms of risk factors, 3 patients had a hemorrhagic diathesis, 3 had taken medication that interfered with hemostasis, and 8 had a history of previous trauma, most of which was digital manipulation. Twenty-six patients did not need invasive therapy. Twenty-six patients received cauterization to control the bleeding, and 4 patients needed surgery. The necessity for surgery was mainly noncooperation.


Epistaxis in children is seldom serious. However, hemorrhagic diathesis needs to be kept in mind as a potential cause of epistaxis. In most cases, careful instruction of the patients and the relatives concerning nasal mucosal care is sufficient. If cauterization is necessary, silver nitrate coagulation should be preferred over electrocoagulation.

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