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Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2018 Jul-Dec;39(2):111-119. doi: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_89_17.

Clinico-mycological analysis and antifungal resistance pattern in human immunodeficiency virus-associated candidiasis: An Indian perspective.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Kalawati Saran Children Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Department of Microbiology, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Department of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.



Candidiasis is a common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated opportunistic mycoses. The present study ascertained the species spectrum of Candida strains recovered from different clinical samples from symptomatic HIV-positive individuals and determined the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolates.

Materials and Methods:

A variety of specimens were collected from 234 symptomatic HIV seropositive individuals depending on their clinical manifestations and subjected to direct microscopic examination. Blood samples were inoculated in biphasic blood culture medium and all other specimens on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 35°C-37°C. Species identification of the recovered Candida isolates was attempted on the basis of germ tube production, micromorphology on corn meal agar, color and morphology on HiCrome Candida Differential agar, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation tests. Susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed employing the VITEK 2 system.


A total of 167 Candida isolates were obtained; Candida albicans (136), Candida tropicalis (13), Candida krusei (8), Candida parapsilosis (5), Candida glabrata (4), and Candida kefyr (1). Fluconazole resistance was more frequent among nonalbicans species, and significantly higher 5-fluorocytosine resistance compared to C. albicans was also observed. Eight Candida strains (six C. krusei, one C. kefyr, and one C. albicans) were multidrug resistant.


Although C. albicans continues to be the leading etiological agent of candidiasis, the incidence of nonalbicans species among HIV-positive Indian individuals is rising. Antifungal resistance was higher among nonalbicans Candida species. Another issue of therapeutic concern is the possible emergence of multidrug-resistant Candida strains among these patients.


Candida; candidiasis; drug resistance; human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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