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Health Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 10;1(10):e83. doi: 10.1002/hsr2.83. eCollection 2018 Oct.

Prevalence and associated factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in Nepal: Analysis of the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine University of Maryland Baltimore Baltimore MD USA.
2
School of Community Health and Policy Morgan State University Baltimore MD USA.
3
Impulse Hospital Dhaka Bangladesh.
4
Bloomberg School of Public Health Johns Hopkins University Baltimore MD USA.

Abstract

Objectives:

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and develops faster among pre-hypertensive individuals. However, there is a lack of nationally representative studies that investigate the prevalence and determinants of these two conditions in many developing countries, including Nepal. This study investigates the prevalence and determinants of pre-hypertension and hypertension in Nepal.

Methods:

The present cross-sectional analysis used data from the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, collected from June 2016 to January 2017. After calculating the weighted prevalence (with 95% confidence interval [CI]), simple and multivariable analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios.

Results:

A total of 14 857 individuals (6247 males and 8610 females) aged ≥15 years who had their blood pressure measured during the survey were included in this study. The prevalence for pre-hypertension and hypertension were 26.0% (95% CI: 25.3-26.3, n = 3856) and 19.5% (95% CI: 18.8-20.2, n = 2899), respectively. The prevalence of both conditions was greater among males. In multivariable analyses, older age, male sex, higher body mass index, and residents of Provinces 4 and 5 had significantly increased odds of pre-hypertension and hypertension (P < .05). Additionally, higher education level was found to be positively associated with hypertension.

Conclusions:

The combined higher prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension indicates that nearly half (45.5%) of the respondents are at a greater risk of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases due to these two conditions. Older people, males, obese people, and individuals living in Provinces 4 and 5 require more awareness to control blood pressure levels.

KEYWORDS:

NDHS 2016; Nepal; determinants; hypertension; prevalence; pre‐hypertension

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