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Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2019 Jan 2;11:45-52. doi: 10.1016/j.dadm.2018.11.001. eCollection 2019 Dec.

The social functioning in dementia scale (SF-DEM): Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric properties in mild, moderate, and severe dementia.

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Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.
Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, St Pancras Hospital, London, UK.
School of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.
Centre for Dementia Studies, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK.



The psychometric properties of the social functioning in dementia scale over different dementia severities are unknown.


We interviewed 299 family carers of people with mild, moderate, or severe dementia from two UK research sites; examined acceptability (completion rates); conducted exploratory factor analysis; and tested each factor's internal consistency and construct validity.


Of 299, 285 (95.3%) carers completed questionnaires. Factor analysis indicated three distinct factors with acceptable internal consistency: spending time with other people, correlating with overall social function (r = 0.56, P < .001) and activities of daily living (r = -0.48, P < .001); communicating with other people correlating with activities of daily living (r = -0.66, P < .001); and sensitivity to other people correlating with quality of life (r = 0.35, P < .001) and inversely with neuropsychiatric symptoms (r = -0.45, P < .001). The three factors' correlations with other domains were similar across all dementia severities.


The social functioning in dementia scale carer version measures three social functioning domains and has satisfactory psychometric properties in all severities of dementia.


Behavior Rating Scale; Dementia; Factor analysis; Psychometrics; Social behaviour

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