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Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2018 Nov 12;11:36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.dadm.2018.10.007. eCollection 2019 Dec.

Normative data from linear and nonlinear quantile regression in CANTAB: Cognition in mid-to-late life in an epidemiological sample.

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Cambridge Cognition, Tunbridge Court, Bottisham, Cambridge, UK.
Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
Janssen Research and Development, a division of Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Beerse, Belgium.
Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), Institute Born-Bunge, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
Janssen Research and Development LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.
Centre for Urban Epidemiology, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.



Normative cognitive data can help to distinguish pathological decline from normal aging. This study presents normative data from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, using linear regression and nonlinear quantile regression approaches.


Heinz Nixdorf Recall study participants completed Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery tests: paired-associate learning, spatial working memory, and reaction time. Data were available for 1349-1529 healthy adults aged 57-84 years. Linear and nonlinear quantile regression analyses examined age-related changes, adjusting for sex and education. Quantile regression differentiated seven performance bands (percentiles: 97.7, 93.3, 84.1, 50, 15.9, 6.7, and 2.3).


Normative data show age-related cognitive decline across all tests, but with quantile regression revealing heterogeneous trajectories of cognitive aging, particularly for the test of episodic memory function (paired-associate learning).


This study presents normative data from Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in mid-to-late life. Quantile regression can model heterogeneity in age-related cognitive trajectories as seen in the paired-associate learning episodic memory measure.


Aging; Cognition; Dementia; Episodic memory; Mild cognitive impairment; Normative data

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