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Int J Prev Med. 2018 Dec 5;9:105. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_488_17. eCollection 2018.

Smoking Pattern and Associated Sociodemographic Factors: Findings from a Nationwide STEPS Survey in Iran.

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Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for noncommunicable diseases with a wide range of harmful health outcomes. Identification of sociodemographic characteristics of smokers can be a guideline to development of effective intervention proportional to target population. This study aimed to determine smoking pattern and its associated sociodemographic factors in Iran.


This cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the sixth round of nationwide STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) survey in the 31 provinces of Iran. A total of 10,834 participants aged ≥15 years were selected through a multistage cluster sampling method. Collecting data was performed via three-step questionnaire (ecological, behavioral risk factors, and physical and biochemical measurements). Data analysis was performed via Epi Info and then SPSS version 21 softwares using descriptive methods and analytical tests.


Of all participants, 9.6% were current cigarette smokers, which was significantly more frequent among men than women (21.5% vs. 1.1%, respectively, P < 0.001). Smoking was significantly associated with being self-employed and having under diploma education level (P < 0.05). Of all current cigarette smokers, 8.7% were daily smokers. The mean ± standard deviation of systolic blood pressure and history of cardiovascular symptoms in current smokers were higher than nonsmokers (P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). Coughing for >4 weeks, frequent wheezing, and shortness of breath were significantly more frequent in current smokers than nonsmokers (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.02, respectively).


Our results draw a picture of sociodemographic distribution of smoking pattern to determine the specific characteristics of the target population affecting cigarette smoking and identified specific demographic strategies for preventive and control action plan.


Cigarette smoking; noncommunicable diseases; risk factors; tobacco smoking

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