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Int J Prev Med. 2018 Dec 5;9:104. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_30_17. eCollection 2018.

Mapping of Stomach, Colorectal, and Bladder Cancers in Iran, 2004-2009: Applying Bayesian Polytomous Logit Model.

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Student Research Center, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
Department of Statistics G. Parenti, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.



According to the last report of Iran cancer registry, stomach, colorectal, and bladder cancers are the most prevalent cancers. The present study focused on separating the latent risk surface into shared and disease-specific components.


In this study, data consisting of stomach, colorectal, and bladder cancers in 30 provinces of Iran during 2004-2009 are considered. These data are analyzed by polytomous logit model. The incidence of stomach cancer acts as the reference category (the surrogate for smoking). Then, the log odds are decomposed into shared and specific structured spatial and unstructured spatial components. These latent components help to detect spatial patterns of shared and disease-specific risk factors.


Central, Southern, Eastern, and Southwestern provinces are supposed as high-risk regions for shared risk factor for colorectal and bladder cancers. This shared risk factor is slightly associated more with bladder than with colorectal cancer. Northern, northwestern, and central regions and also three borderline provinces in southwestern are high-risk regions for colorectal cancer. Central, eastern, southern, and western strip of the country except Ilam are found as the high-risk regions of bladder cancer.


After considering known shared risk factor of the three cancers, it turns out that colorectal and bladder cancers have unknown shared risk factor. The significant difference in their lifestyle and eating habits could be an assumption of the risk factor.


Colorectal neoplasms; disease mapping; polytomous logit model; shared component model; stomach neoplasms; urinary bladder neoplasms

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