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Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 Jan 8. doi: 10.1038/s41366-018-0309-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Dietary weight loss intervention improves subclinical atherosclerosis and oxidative stress markers in leukocytes of obese humans.

Author information

1
Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University Hospital Doctor Peset-FISABIO, Av. Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017, Valencia, Spain.
2
Service of Stomatology, University Hospital Doctor Peset-FISABIO, Av. Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017, Valencia, Spain.
3
Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University Hospital Doctor Peset-FISABIO, Av. Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017, Valencia, Spain. victor.victor@uv.es.
4
CIBER CB06/04/0071 Research Group. CIBER Hepatic and Digestive Diseases, University of Valencia, Av Blasco Ibáñez 13, 46010, Valencia, Spain. victor.victor@uv.es.
5
Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibáñez 13, 46010, Valencia, Spain. victor.victor@uv.es.
6
Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University Hospital Doctor Peset-FISABIO, Av. Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017, Valencia, Spain. milagros.rocha@uv.es.
7
CIBER CB06/04/0071 Research Group. CIBER Hepatic and Digestive Diseases, University of Valencia, Av Blasco Ibáñez 13, 46010, Valencia, Spain. milagros.rocha@uv.es.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The relationship between caloric restriction-mediated weight loss and the generation of ROS and its effects on atherosclerotic markers in obesity is not fully understood. Therefore, we set out to investigate whether dietary weight loss intervention improves markers of oxidative stress in leukocytes and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

This was an interventional study of 59 obese subjects (BMI > 35 kg/m2) who underwent 6 months of dietary therapy, including a 6-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by an 18-week low-calorie diet (LCD). We determined clinical parameters, inflammatory markers-hsCRP, TNFα and NFκB -, oxidative stress parameters-total superoxide, glutathione, catalase activity and protein carbonyl groups-, soluble cellular adhesion molecules-sICAM, sP-selectin, sPSGL-1 -, myeloperoxidase (MPO), leukocyte-endothelium cell interactions-rolling flux, velocity and adhesion-and LDL subfractions, before and after the dietary intervention.

RESULTS:

After losing weight, an improvement was observed in the patients' anthropometric, blood pressure and metabolic parameters, and was associated with reduced inflammatory response (hsCRP, TNFα and NFκB). Oxidative stress parameters improved, since superoxide production and protein carbonyl content were reduced and antioxidant systems were enhanced. In addition, a significant reduction of subclinical markers of atherosclerosis-small and dense LDL particles, MPO, sP-selectin and leukocyte adhesion-and an increase in soluble PSGL-1 were reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings reveal that the improvement of subclinical atherosclerotic markers after dietary weight loss intervention is associated with a reduction of oxidative stress in leukocytes and inflammatory pathways, suggesting that these are the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects after losing weight.

PMID:
30622308
DOI:
10.1038/s41366-018-0309-5

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