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Cell Death Differ. 2019 Mar;26(3):395-408. doi: 10.1038/s41418-018-0261-x. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

To NET or not to NET:current opinions and state of the science regarding the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander University (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.
2
Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
3
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.
4
Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
5
Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine.
6
Inflammation Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
7
Department of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
8
VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, University of Gent, Gent, Belgium.
9
Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
10
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
11
Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
12
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
13
Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
14
Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander University (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, 91054, Erlangen, Germany. markus.hoffmann@uk-erlangen.de.
15
Systemic Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.
16
Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
17
Snyder institute of Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
18
Department of Medicine 1 - Gastroenterology, Pulmonology and Endocrinology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.
19
Università Vita Salute San Raffaele and IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
20
Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Genetics, The Smurfit Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.
21
Laboratory of Molecular Hematology, Department of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
22
First Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
23
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
24
UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.
25
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
26
Department of Nephrology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
27
Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.
28
Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
29
Methusalem platform, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
30
Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
31
Department of Biosciences, Vascular & Exercise Biology Unit, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
32
Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.
33
Department of Physiological Chemistry & Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonosis (RIZ), University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
34
University of Münster, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Münster, Germany.

Abstract

Since the discovery and definition of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) 14 years ago, numerous characteristics and physiological functions of NETs have been uncovered. Nowadays, the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate formation of NETs, their previously unknown properties, and novel implications in disease continue to emerge. The abundance of available data has also led to some confusion in the NET research community due to contradictory results and divergent scientific concepts, such as pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in pathologic conditions, demarcation from other forms of cell death, or the origin of the DNA that forms the NET scaffold. Here, we present prevailing concepts and state of the science in NET-related research and elaborate on open questions and areas of dispute.

PMID:
30622307
PMCID:
PMC6370810
[Available on 2020-03-01]
DOI:
10.1038/s41418-018-0261-x

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