Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Jan 8. pii: cebp.0743.2018. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0743. [Epub ahead of print]

Urinary Biomarkers of Carcinogenic Exposure Among Cigarette, Waterpipe and Smokeless Tobacco Users and Never Users of Tobacco in the Golestan Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute arash.etemadi@nih.gov.
2
Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
3
Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, DHHS.
4
NCEH, Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention (CDC).
5
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
6
National Center for Environmental Health.
7
Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
8
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute.
9
Department of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute.
10
Division of Laboratory Sciences, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
11
Department of Biology, School of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, Morgan State University.
12
Genetic Epidemiology, International Agency For Research On Cancer.
13
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
14
Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute.
15
Digestive Disease Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
16
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

How carcinogen exposure varies across users of different, particularly non-cigarette, tobacco products remains poorly understood.

METHODS:

We randomly selected 165 participants of Golestan Cohort Study from northeastern Iran: 60 never users of any tobacco, 35 exclusive cigarette, 40 exclusive (78% daily) waterpipe, and 30 exclusive smokeless tobacco (nass) users. We measured concentrations of 39 biomarkers of exposure in 4 chemical classes in baseline urine samples: tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We also quantified the same biomarkers in a second urine sample, obtained five years later, among continuing cigarette smokers and never tobacco users.

RESULTS:

Nass users had the highest concentrations of tobacco alkaloids. All tobacco users had elevated TSNA concentrations which correlated with nicotine dose. In both cigarette and waterpipe smokers, PAH and VOC biomarkers were higher than never tobacco users and nass users, and highly correlated with nicotine dose. PAH biomarkers of phenanthrene and pyrene, and two VOC metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid) were higher in waterpipe smokers than all other groups. PAH biomarkers among Golestan never tobacco users were comparable to those in U.S. cigarette smokers. All biomarkers had moderate to good correlations over five years, particularly in continuing cigarette smokers.

CONCLUSION:

We observed two patterns of exposure biomarkers that differentiated the use of the combustible products (cigarettes and waterpipe) from the smokeless product. Environmental exposure from non-tobacco sources appeared to contribute to the presence of high levels of PAH metabolites in the Golestan Cohort.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center