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Environ Int. 2019 Feb;123:459-466. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.017. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Maternal swimming pool exposure during pregnancy in relation to birth outcomes and cord blood DNA methylation among private well users.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth College, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA; The Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA. Electronic address: Lucas.A.Salas.Diaz@Dartmouth.Edu.
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth College, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA. Electronic address: emily.r.baker@dartmouth.edu.
3
ISGlobal, The Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address: mark.nieuwenhuijsen@isglobal.org.
4
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, Atlanta 30322, GA, USA. Electronic address: carmen.j.marsit@emory.edu.
5
Department of Epidemiology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth College, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA; Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA; Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA. Electronic address: brock.c.christensen@dartmouth.edu.
6
Department of Epidemiology, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth College, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA; The Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Lebanon 03756, NH, USA. Electronic address: margaret.r.karagas@dartmouth.edu.

Abstract

Swimming in pools during pregnancy may expose the fetus to water disinfection by-products (DBP). As yet, our understanding of the impacts on DBPs on the fetus is uncertain. Individuals with public water systems are typically exposed to DBPs through drinking, showering and bathing, whereas among those on private water systems, swimming in pools may be the primary exposure source. We analyzed the effects of maternal swimming on birth outcomes and cord blood epigenetic changes in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study, a cohort of pregnant women with households on private water systems. Information about swimming in pools during pregnancy was obtained from 1033 women via questionnaires. Swimming pool use and duration were modeled using linear regression with newborn weight, length, and head circumference (z-scores) and genome wide cord blood DNA methylation as the outcomes and with adjustment for potential confounders. Overall 19.7% of women reported swimming in a pool during pregnancy. Among swimmers, duration of swimming was inversely related to head circumference (-0.02 z-score per 10% increase in duration, P = 0.004). No associations were observed with birth weight, length or DNA methylation modifications. Our findings suggest swimming pool exposure may impact the developing fetus although longer-term studies are needed.

PMID:
30622071
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.017
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