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J Mol Biol. 1988 Oct 5;203(3):803-16.

Crystallographic refinement by simulated annealing. Application to a 2.8 A resolution structure of aspartate aminotransferase.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511.


Crystallographic refinement by simulated annealing with molecular dynamics has been applied to a 2.8 A (1 A = 0.1 nm) resolution X-ray structure of aspartate aminotransferase. Comparison of the refined structure and a structure obtained by combined restrained least-squares refinement and manual re-fitting shows a similar R factor, stereochemistry, and mean difference from the isomorphous replacement phase centroids. Crystallographic refinement by simulated annealing accomplished structural changes and improvements of the electron density maps that were not possible by using restrained least-squares refinement without manual re-fitting. Crystallographic refinement by simulated annealing can generate an ensemble of structures, each of which agrees with the diffraction information. Regions of large variations of the ensemble indicate either erroneously fitted or disordered segments of the macromolecule.

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