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Ginekol Pol. 2018;89(12):659-666. doi: 10.5603/GP.a2018.0111.

Dietary macronutrients and fluid intakes in a sample of pregnant women with either gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes mellitus, assessed in comparison with Polish nutritional guidelines.

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1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.



Pregnancy is a critical period during which environmental factors such as nutrition can affect development. Maintaining proper nutrition becomes even more significant when pregnant women have diabetes. The aim of this study was to measure changes in energy and macronutrient intakes among pregnant women and patients diagnosed either with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy, or, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) before pregnancy, and to assess the pregnant women's dietary intakes in comparison with Polish Institute of Food and Nutrition nutritional guidelines.


The analysis was conducted among 83 pregnant women (29 GDM patients, 26 T1DM patients and 28 normal pregnancy patients - the control group) from whom we gathered nutritional data during the second part of their pregnancies. Data on each woman's diet during pregnancy was collected is self-completed dietary records during seven consecutive 24-hour periods.


The mean macronutrient intake of the GDM patients was 32.1% fat, 19.5% protein, and 48.3% carbohydrates; in the T1DM group the results were 34.2%, 19.4% and 46.4% respectively; and in control group they were 31.8%, 17.6% and 50.5% respectively. This study showed that many of the pregnant women did not reach the recommended level of energy intake during pregnancy. Moreover, most of the women exceeded their fat requirements, and fat intake as a proportion of energy intakes also exceeded the guidelines in more than 60% of the women across all groups.


The implications and possible causes of excessive fat intake during pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by diabetes are underestimated and undertreated by obstetricians and warrant further investigation, especially in association with gestational weight gain, maternal and fetal perinatal complications, and post-gestational diabetes.


GDM; energy intakes; fluid intakes; maternal diet

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