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Pharmacoecon Open. 2019 Jan 8. doi: 10.1007/s41669-018-0112-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Economic Evaluation of Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab Combination as First-Line Treatment for Patients with Advanced Melanoma in Canada.

Author information

1
Modeling and Simulation, Evidera, 7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1400, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA. peter.quon@evidera.com.
2
Modeling and Simulation, Evidera, 7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 1400, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.
3
Bristol-Myers Squibb, Montreal, QC, Canada.
4
Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Our objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, referred to as "Regimen", as a first-line treatment for patients with advanced melanoma from the perspective of Canada's public healthcare system.

METHODS:

We developed a partitioned-survival model (progression-free survival, post-progression survival, and death) to determine the clinical and economic outcomes of immunotherapy for advanced melanoma over a 20-year time horizon. Regimen was compared with nivolumab, ipilimumab, and pembrolizumab. Two treatment durations for pembrolizumab were considered: (1) maximum of 24 months or until progression or (2) no maximum duration, until progression. The model used data from CheckMate-067 (28 months' follow-up) for treatments involving nivolumab and ipilimumab. The efficacy of pembrolizumab was estimated using indirect comparisons. A scenario looking at the cost of subsequent treatments following disease progression was examined.

RESULTS:

Regimen had better outcomes and was cost effective compared with all other immunotherapies at a threshold of $CAN100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Compared with nivolumab and ipilimumab, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were $CAN47,119 and 66,750 per QALY, respectively. Compared with pembrolizumab with a treatment duration cap, the ICER was $CAN85,436. When assuming no duration cap, Regimen dominated pembrolizumab. With the inclusion of subsequent treatment costs following progression, Regimen's ICER improved compared with all other comparators.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite the advent of effective new therapies for advanced melanoma, prognosis remains poor for some patients. Compared with other immunotherapies, Regimen offers marked benefit and may be a cost-effective treatment option.

PMID:
30617952
DOI:
10.1007/s41669-018-0112-1
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