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BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019 Jan 7;19(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s12872-018-0996-9.

Cardiovascular imaging approach in pre and postoperative tetralogy of Fallot.

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Department of Pediatric Cardiology & Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Syngrou Ave, 176 74, Athens, GR, Greece.
Interventional Cardiology and Cardiology Department, Mediterraneo Hospital, Athens, Greece.
2nd Department of Radiology, General University Hospital "ATTIKON", Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Mid-German Heart Center, Department of Internal Medicine III (KIM-III), Division of Cardiology, Angiology and Intensive Medical Care, University Hospital Halle, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Ernst-Grube-Strasse 40, D-06120, Halle (Saale), Germany.


Advances in the medical and surgical management of Tetralogy of Fallot have led to marked increase of the number and age of survivors. Imaging in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow up, and essentially guides management and intervention in this entity. This study systematically reviews the imaging modalities used in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot in the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative anatomic and hemodynamic lesions, as well as disease progression in this diagnosis. Various invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities, most commonly echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance, computed tomography and angiocardiography provide the imaging information required for diagnosis, management and follow up in Tetralogy of Fallot. The choice of the appropriate imaging tool or their combination is guided by the clinical question, the patient's clinical condition and contraindications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each imaging modality. Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common complex congenital heart disease with long term survivors that need close follow up and complicated management, including multiple surgical and transcatheter interventions. Knowledge of the role and protocols of imaging in Tetralogy of Fallot is extremely important for the clinical as well as the imaging physician in order to optimize patients' management and long-term prognosis.


Angiocardiography; Cardiac magnetic resonance; Congenital heart disease; Echocardiography

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