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J Dairy Sci. 2019 Mar;102(3):2443-2452. doi: 10.3168/jds.2018-15280. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Therapeutic effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on mastitis experimentally induced by lipopolysaccharide in lactating goats.

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Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310058, China.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address:


Escherichia coli is a cause of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle and goats, and sometimes causes severe clinical disease that may result in death of the animal. Previous investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) has an anti-inflammatory effect on the sepsis induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide via competitive binding to toll-like receptor 4. We hypothesized that intravenous injection of Rg1 had therapeutic effect on mastitis experimentally induced by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide in lactating goats. In this study, 9 lactating goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: (1) lipopolysaccharide intramammary infusion + saline intravenous injection, (2) lipopolysaccharide intramammary infusion + Rg1 intravenous injection, and (3) saline intramammary administration + saline intravenous injection. Because no adverse clinical signs were observed after intramammary infusion of saline and intravenous injection of Rg1 in a preliminary experiment, and available qualified goats were limited in this study, this treatment was not included in this study. One udder half of each goat received intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (50 μg/kg of body weight; groups 1 and 2) or saline solution (group 3), and the other half was infused with 2 mL of saline solution at h 0. Afterward, intravenous injections of saline solution (groups 1 and 3) or Rg1 (2.5 mg/kg of body weight; group 2) were administered at h 2 and 4 post-lipopolysaccharide challenge. Blood and milk samples were collected 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 48, and 72 h post-lipopolysaccharide challenge, and clinical signs were monitored hourly after lipopolysaccharide challenge within the first 10 h and at the same time points as blood samples. The results showed that Rg1 treatment downregulated rectal temperature, udder skin temperature, udder girth, milk somatic cell count, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and upregulated milk production, lactose, and recovered blood components, such as white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, total proteins, albumin, and globulin. Considering the positive therapeutic effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in goats presented in this study as well as the anti-inflammatory activity found previously, the botanical Rg1 deserves further study as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of E. coli mastitis in dairy animals.


anti-inflammation; ginsenoside Rg1; lipopolysaccharide; mastitis

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