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BMC Med Genet. 2019 Jan 6;20(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s12881-018-0731-5.

A comprehensive multiplex PCR based exome-sequencing assay for rapid bloodspot confirmation of inborn errors of metabolism.

Author information

1
Children and Women's Hospital of Shanxi, Women Health Center of Shanxi, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.
2
Children and Women's Hospital of Shanxi, Newborn Disease Screening Center of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.
3
Beijing Berry Genomics Corporation, Building 5, Courtyard 4, Yiliaoyuan Road, ZGC Life Science Park, Beijing, 102206, Changping District, China.
4
Beijing Chigene Translational Medicial Research Center Co., Beijing, 101111, China.
5
Children and Women's Hospital of Shanxi, Women Health Center of Shanxi, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China. david.cram@berrygenomics.com.
6
Beijing Berry Genomics Corporation, Building 5, Courtyard 4, Yiliaoyuan Road, ZGC Life Science Park, Beijing, 102206, Changping District, China. david.cram@berrygenomics.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS MS) and simple fluorometric assays are currently used in newborn screening programs to detect inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of exome sequencing as a second tier screening method to assist clinical diagnosis of the newborn.

METHODS:

A novel PCR-exome amplification and re-sequencing (PEARS) assay was designed and used to detect mutations in 122 genes associated with 101 IEM. Newborn bloodspots positive by biochemical testing were analysed by PEARS assay to detect pathogenic mutations relevant to the IEM.

RESULTS:

In initial validation studies of genomic DNA samples, PEARS assay correctly detected 25 known mutations associated with 17 different IEM. Retrospective gene analysis of newborns with clinical phenylketonuria (PKU), identified compound heterozygote phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene mutations in eight of nine samples (89%). Prospective analysis of 211 bloodspots correctly identified the two true PKU samples, yielding positive and negative predictive values of 100%. Testing of 8 true positive MS MS samples correctly identified potentially pathogenic compound heterozygote genotypes in 2 cases of citrullinemia type 1 and one case each of methylmalonic acidemia, isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and glutaric acid type II and heterozygous genotypes in 2 cases of autosomal dominant methioninemia. Analysis of 11 of 12 false positive MS MS samples for other IEM identified heterozygous carriers in 8 cases for the relevant genes associated with the suspected IEM. In the remaining 3 cases, the test revealed compound heterozygote mutations in other metabolic genes not associated with the suspected IEM, indicating a misinterpretation of the original MS MS data.

CONCLUSIONS:

The PEARS assay has clinical utility as a rapid and cost effective second-tier test to assist the clinician to accurately diagnose newborns with a suspected IEM.

KEYWORDS:

Compound heterozygotes; Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM); Newborns; PCR exome amplification and re-sequencing (PEARS); Phenylketonuria (PKU); Tandem mass spectroscopy (MS MS)

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