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Nutrients. 2019 Jan 2;11(1). pii: E72. doi: 10.3390/nu11010072.

Assessment of Dietary Intake and Nutrient Gaps, and Development of Food-Based Recommendations, among Pregnant and Lactating Women in Zinder, Niger: An Optifood Linear Programming Analysis.

Author information

1
Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. krwessells@ucdavis.edu.
2
Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. rryoung@ucdavis.edu.
3
Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK. elaine.ferguson@lshtm.ac.uk.
4
Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ctouedraogo@ucdavis.edu.
5
Helen Keller International, Niamey 0000, Niger. tfaye@hki.org.
6
Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. syhess@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

Pregnant and lactating women in rural Niger are at high risk for inadequate intakes of multiple micronutrients. Thus, 24 h dietary recalls were conducted and analyzed for dietary intakes in this population (n = 202). Using linear programming analyses, micronutrient gaps in women's diets were identified, food-based recommendations (FBR) to improve dietary micronutrient adequacy were developed, and various supplementation strategies were modelled. Energy intakes were below estimated requirements, and, for most micronutrients, >50% of women were at risk of inadequate intakes. Linear programming analyses indicated it would be difficult to select a diet that achieved recommended dietary allowances for all but three (vitamin B₆, iron and zinc) of 11 modeled micronutrients. Consumption of one additional meal per day, and adherence to the selected FBR (daily consumption of dark green leafy vegetables, fermented milk, millet, pulses, and vitamin A fortified oil), would result in a low percentage of women at risk of inadequate intakes for eight modeled micronutrients (vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamin, B6, folate, iron, zinc, and calcium). Because the promotion of realistic FBRs likely will not ensure that a low percentage of women are at risk of inadequate intakes for all modeled micronutrients, multiple micronutrient supplementation or provision of nutrient-dense foods should be prioritized.

KEYWORDS:

Optifood; deficiency; dietary intake; food-based recommendations; lactation; linear programming; micronutrient; pregnant; women

PMID:
30609695
PMCID:
PMC6357040
DOI:
10.3390/nu11010072
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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