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Infect Dis Ther. 2019 Mar;8(1):23-32. doi: 10.1007/s40121-018-0228-8. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Public Health Considerations among People who Inject Drugs with HIV/HCV Co-Infection: A Review.

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College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern. There are limited data in clinical trials on the use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for treatment of HCV in co-infected PWID. It is critical for these patients to gain access to treatment in order to decrease progression of liver disease and decrease transmission of both HIV and HCV. Additional harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programs and opioid substitution treatment, should be made available to this vulnerable population. Despite the importance of DAA treatment, the cost of DAA therapy and access to medical care is still a barrier to appropriate therapy. The purpose of this review is to present available data on the use of DAAs in co-infected PWID, review guideline recommendations for treatment and retreatment of HCV in co-infected PWID, provide cost considerations for DAA therapy, and provide recommendations about caring for patients who continue to inject drugs.


Co-infection; HCV; HIV/AIDS; Hepatitis; Injection drug use; PWID; Public health

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