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Nat Rev Nephrol. 2019 Feb;15(2):87-108. doi: 10.1038/s41581-018-0098-z.

Endothelium structure and function in kidney health and disease.

Author information

1
Aix-Marseille University, Centre de Nephrologie et Transplantation Renale, AP-HM Hopital de la Conception, Marseille, France. noemie.jourde@ap-hm.fr.
2
Aix-Marseille University, C2VN, INSERM 1263, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) 1260, Faculte de Pharmacie, Marseille, France. noemie.jourde@ap-hm.fr.
3
Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie, INSERM, Université de Nantes and Department of Nephrology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.
4
Aix-Marseille University, C2VN, INSERM 1263, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) 1260, Faculte de Pharmacie, Marseille, France.
5
Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital and INSERM, Normandy University, Université de Rouen Normandie, Rouen, France.
6
Aix-Marseille University, Centre de Nephrologie et Transplantation Renale, AP-HM Hopital de la Conception, Marseille, France.
7
Université de Lille, INSERM, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, U995, Lille Inflammation Research International Center (LIRIC), Lille, France.
8
Nephrology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Lille, France.
9
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Service de Médecine Interne et d'Immunologie Clinique, Hôpital de La Conception, Marseille, France.
10
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lapeyronie, Département de Néphrologie Dialyse et Transplantation Rénale, Montpellier, France.
11
Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Biotherapy (IRMB), Montpellier, France.
12
Tissue Bioengineering, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
13
Service de Néphrologie Transplantation, Dialyse et Aphérèse, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
14
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Service d'Immunologie Biologique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.
15
INSERM, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, F-75006, Paris, France.
16
Normandie Université, Université de Rouen Normandie, Rouen University Hospital, Department of Nephrology, Rouen, France.
17
INSERM, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, F-75006, Paris, France. lubka.roumenina@crc.jussieu.fr.
18
Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France. lubka.roumenina@crc.jussieu.fr.
19
Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. lubka.roumenina@crc.jussieu.fr.

Abstract

The kidney harbours different types of endothelia, each with specific structural and functional characteristics. The glomerular endothelium, which is highly fenestrated and covered by a rich glycocalyx, participates in the sieving properties of the glomerular filtration barrier and in the maintenance of podocyte structure. The microvascular endothelium in peritubular capillaries, which is also fenestrated, transports reabsorbed components and participates in epithelial cell function. The endothelium of large and small vessels supports the renal vasculature. These renal endothelia are protected by regulators of thrombosis, inflammation and complement, but endothelial injury (for example, induced by toxins, antibodies, immune cells or inflammatory cytokines) or defects in factors that provide endothelial protection (for example, regulators of complement or angiogenesis) can lead to acute or chronic renal injury. Moreover, renal endothelial cells can transition towards a mesenchymal phenotype, favouring renal fibrosis and the development of chronic kidney disease. Thus, the renal endothelium is both a target and a driver of kidney and systemic cardiovascular complications. Emerging therapeutic strategies that target the renal endothelium may lead to improved outcomes for both rare and common renal diseases.

PMID:
30607032
DOI:
10.1038/s41581-018-0098-z

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