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Trends Genet. 2018 Dec 31. pii: S0168-9525(18)30222-1. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2018.12.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Translation of Small Open Reading Frames: Roles in Regulation and Evolutionary Innovation.

Author information

1
Evolutionary Genomics Group, Research Programme in Biomedical Informatics, Hospital del Mar Research Institute, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Evolutionary Genomics Group, Research Programme in Biomedical Informatics, Hospital del Mar Research Institute, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: malba@imim.es.

Abstract

The translatome can be defined as the sum of the RNA sequences that are translated into proteins in the cell by the ribosomal machinery. Until recently, it was generally assumed that the translatome was essentially restricted to evolutionary conserved proteins encoded by the set of annotated protein-coding genes. However, it has become increasingly clear that it also includes small regulatory open reading frames (ORFs), functional micropeptides, de novo proteins, and the pervasive translation of likely nonfunctional proteins. Many of these ORFs have been discovered thanks to the development of ribosome profiling, a technique to sequence ribosome-protected RNA fragments. To fully capture the diversity of translated ORFs, we propose a comprehensive classification that includes the new types of translated ORFs in addition to standard proteins.

KEYWORDS:

de novo protein; micropeptide; open reading frame; ribosome profiling; translatome

PMID:
30606460
DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2018.12.003

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