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Semin Nephrol. 2019 Jan;39(1):85-95. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2018.10.008.

AKI and the Neuroimmune Axis.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology and Center for Immunity, Inflammation, and Regenerative Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
2
Division of Nephrology and Center for Immunity, Inflammation, and Regenerative Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address: mdo7y@virginia.edu.

Abstract

Neuroimmune interaction is an emerging concept, wherein the nervous system modulates the immune system and vice versa. This concept is gaining attention as a novel therapeutic target in various inflammatory diseases including acute kidney injury (AKI). Vagus nerve stimulation or treatment with pulsed ultrasound activates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway to prevent AKI in mice. The kidneys are innervated by sympathetic efferent and sensory afferent neurons, and these neurons also may play a role in the modulation of inflammation in AKI. In this review, we discuss several neural circuits with respect to the control of renal inflammation and AKI as well as optogenetics as a novel tool for understanding these complex neural circuits.

KEYWORDS:

Acute kidney injury; cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway; neuroimmune interaction; optogenetics; vagus nerve stimulation

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