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Acta Oncol. 2019 Jan 3:1-12. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2018.1529428. [Epub ahead of print]

Identifying breast cancer susceptibility genes - a review of the genetic background in familial breast cancer.

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1
a Department of Oncology , Södersjukhuset , Stockholm , Sweden.
2
b Department of Clinical Science and Education , Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.

Abstract

Heritage is the most important risk factor for breast cancer. About 15-20% of breast cancer is familial, referring to affected women who have one or more first- or second-degree relatives with the disease. The heritable component in these families is substantial, especially in families with aggregation of breast cancer with low age at onset. Identifying breast cancer susceptibility genes: Since the discovery of the highly penetrant autosomal dominant susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the 1990s, several more breast cancer genes that confer a moderate to high risk of breast cancer have been identified. Furthermore, during the last decade, advances in genomic technologies have led to large scale genotyping in genome-wide association studies that have identified a considerable amount of common low penetrance loci. In total, the high risk genes, BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, STK11, CD1 and PTEN account for approximately 20% of the familial risk. Moderate risk variants account for up to 5% of the inherited familial risk. The more than 180 identified low-risk loci explain 18% of the familial risk. Altogether more than half of the genetic background in familial breast cancer remains unclear. Other genes and low risk loci that explain a part the remaining fraction will probably be identified. Clinical aspects and future perspectives: Definitive clinical recommendations can be drawn only for carriers of germline variants in a limited number of high and moderate risk genes for which an association with breast cancer has been established. Future progress in evaluating previously identified breast cancer candidate variants and low risk loci as well as exploring new ones can play an important role in improving individual risk prediction in familial breast cancer.

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