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Lung India. 2019 Jan-Feb;36(1):3-7. doi: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_192_18.

Extrapulmonary drug-resistant tuberculosis at a drug-resistant tuberculosis center, Mumbai: Our experience - Hope in the midst of despair!

Author information

1
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, T. N. Medical College, B. Y. L. Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract

Background:

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a global problem with only 52% reported cure rate. Extrapulmonary (EP) DR-TB poses a formidable diagnostic, therapeutic challenge. We aimed to study their clinical profile and treatment outcomes under the programmatic setting.

Materials and Methods:

This retrospective observational study included the database of consecutive EPDR-TB cases enrolled at the DR-TB center from 2012 to 2014. The demographic, clinical details, drug susceptibility tests (DSTs), follow-up, therapy, adverse events (AEs), and outcome were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using percentages and mean.

Results:

Of total 1743 DR-TB patients, 76 (4.4%) EPDR-TB cases were included. These consisted of 53 (69.7%) adults and 23 (30.3%) children, with female preponderance. The mean age in adults and children was 27.96 (9.63) and 12.56 (3.83), respectively. EP sites involved were lymph nodes in 39 (51.3%), spine in 15 (19.7%), other bones in 6 (7.9%), pleural effusion in 9 (11.9%), central nervous system in 2 (2.6%), and disseminated EP disease in 5 (6.6%). Forty-one (53.9%) had multi-DR-TB (MDR-TB), 29 (38.2%) MDR-TB with fluoroquinolone resistance {preextensively DR-TB (Pre-XDR-TB (FQ)), 1 (1.3%) MDR-TB with aminoglycoside resistance (Pre-XDR-TB (AM)), and 5 (6.6%) extensively DR-TB (XDR-TB) on DST. Thirteen (17.11%) had comorbidities. None had HIV. Two (2.63%) had DM. Patients were treated as per the revised TB control program - programmatic management of DR-TB guidelines. Duration of intensive (IP) was 6.55 (1.22) months. Ten (13.2%) received shorter regimens, wherein therapy was stopped at 12-18 months due to severe adverse drug reactions and treatment response. Sixty-two (81.6%) completed treatment, 8 (10.5%) defaulted, 3 (4%) died, 2 (2.6%) failed, and 1 (1.3%) was transferred out. Two-third of patients reported AE.

Conclusion:

The prevalence of EP cases in DR-TB was 4.4%. Treatment completion rate was very high (81.6%). Shorter regimens were efficacious.

KEYWORDS:

Extrapulmonary; shorter regimen; treatment outcome

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