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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2019 Mar;39(3):467-481. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.312233.

Disturbed Flow Increases UBE2C (Ubiquitin E2 Ligase C) via Loss of miR-483-3p, Inducing Aortic Valve Calcification by the pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau Protein) and HIF-1α (Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α) Pathway in Endothelial Cells.

Author information

1
From the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta (J.F.E., N.V.-R., S.K., L.G., W.R.T., A.P.Y., H.J.).
2
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (M.T.S., A.P.Y.).
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada (M.O.).
4
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (W.R.T., H.J.).
5
Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (R.M.N.).

Abstract

Objective- Calcific aortic valve (AV) disease, characterized by AV sclerosis and calcification, is a major cause of death in the aging population; however, there are no effective medical therapies other than valve replacement. AV calcification preferentially occurs on the fibrosa side, exposed to disturbed flow (d-flow), whereas the ventricularis side exposed to predominantly stable flow remains protected by unclear mechanisms. Here, we tested the role of novel flow-sensitive UBE2C (ubiquitin E2 ligase C) and microRNA-483-3p (miR-483) in flow-dependent AV endothelial function and AV calcification. Approach and Results- Human AV endothelial cells and fresh porcine AV leaflets were exposed to stable flow or d-flow. We found that UBE2C was upregulated by d-flow in human AV endothelial cells in the miR-483-dependent manner. UBE2C mediated OS-induced endothelial inflammation and endothelial-mesenchymal transition by increasing the HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) level. UBE2C increased HIF-1α by ubiquitinating and degrading its upstream regulator pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein). These in vitro findings were corroborated by immunostaining studies using diseased human AV leaflets. In addition, we found that reduction of miR-483 by d-flow led to increased UBE2C expression in human AV endothelial cells. The miR-483 mimic protected against endothelial inflammation and endothelial-mesenchymal transition in human AV endothelial cells and calcification of porcine AV leaflets by downregulating UBE2C. Moreover, treatment with the HIF-1α inhibitor (PX478) significantly reduced porcine AV calcification in static and d-flow conditions. Conclusions- These results suggest that miR-483 and UBE2C and pVHL are novel flow-sensitive anti- and pro-calcific AV disease molecules, respectively, that regulate the HIF-1α pathway in AV. The miR-483 mimic and HIF-1α pathway inhibitors may serve as potential therapeutics of calcific AV disease.

KEYWORDS:

aortic valve; aortic valve stenosis; endothelial cells; endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition; inflammation; microRNAs; ubiquitination

PMID:
30602302
PMCID:
PMC6393167
[Available on 2020-03-01]
DOI:
10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.312233

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