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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2019 Jan 2. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00351.2018. [Epub ahead of print]

Soft Drink Consumption During and Following Exercise in the Heat Elevates Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury.

Author information

1
Department of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, United States.
2
Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, United States.
3
Physiology and Biophysics, SUNY: The University at Buffalo, United States.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that consuming a soft drink (i.e., a high fructose, caffeinated beverage) during and following exercise in the heat elevates biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) in humans. Twelve healthy adults drank 2 L of an assigned beverage during 4 h of exercise in the heat (35.1 ± 0.1°C, 61 ± 5% relative humidity) in counterbalanced soft drink (Soft Drink) and water (Water) trials, and ≥1 L of the same beverage after leaving the laboratory. Stage 1 AKI (i.e., increased serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL) was detected at post-exercise in 75% of participants in the Soft Drink trial compared to 8% in Water (P=0.02). Furthermore, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of AKI, was higher during an overnight collection period after the Soft Drink trial compared to Water in both absolute concentration (6 ± 4 ng/dL vs. 5 ± 4 ng/dL, P<0.04) and after correcting for urine flow rate (6 ± 7 [ng×dL-1]/[mL×min-1] vs. 4 ± 4 [ng×dL-1]/[mL×min-1], P=0.03). Changes in serum uric acid from pre-exercise were greater in the Soft Drink trial than Water at post-exercise (P<0.01) and 24 h (P=0.05). There were greater increases from pre-exercise in serum copeptin, a stable marker of vasopressin, at post-exercise in the Soft Drink trial (P<0.02) than Water. These findings indicate that consuming a soft drink during and following exercise in the heat induces AKI, likely via vasopressin mediated mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

chronic kidney disease; dehydration; exercise; heat stress; soda

PMID:
30601706
DOI:
10.1152/ajpregu.00351.2018

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