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Simul Healthc. 2018 Dec 29. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000350. [Epub ahead of print]

The Impact of Phone Interruptions on the Quality of Simulated Medication Order Validation Using Eye Tracking: A Pilot Study.

Author information

1
From the Unité de Recherche en Pratique Pharmaceutique and Department of Pharmacy (M.T., D.L.), CHU Sainte-Justine; Faculté de pharmacie (C.P.), Université de Limoges, France and Unité de Recherche en Pratique Pharmaceutique, CHU Sainte-Justine; Faculté de pharmacie (S.G.), Université de Lille, France and Unité de Recherche en Pratique Pharmaceutique, CHU Sainte-Justine; Department of Pediatrics (A.L.), Division of Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal; and Faculty of Pharmacy (J.F.B.), Université de Montréal and Unité de Recherche en Pratique Pharmaceutique, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Order validation is an important component of pharmacy services, where pharmacists review orders with a focus on error prevention. Interruptions are frequent and may contribute to a reduction in error detection, thus potential medication errors. However, studying such errors in practice is difficult. Simulation has potential to study these events.

METHODS:

This was a pilot, simulation study. The primary objective was to determine the rate of medication error detection and the effect of interruptions on error detection during simulated validation. Secondary objectives included determining time to complete each prescription page. The scenario consisted of validating three handwritten medication order pages containing 12 orders and 17 errors, interrupted by three phone calls timed during one order for each page. Participants were categorized in groups: seniors and juniors (including residents). Simulation sessions were videotaped and eye tracking was used to assist in analysis.

RESULTS:

Eight senior and five junior pharmacists were included in the analysis. There was a significant association between interruption and error detection (odds ratio = 0.149, 95% confidence interval = 0.042-0.525, P = 0.005). This association did not vary significantly between groups (P = 0.832). Juniors took more time to validate the first page (10 minutes 56 seconds vs. 6 minutes 42 seconds) but detected more errors (95% vs. 69%). However, all major errors were detected by all participants.

CONCLUSIONS:

We observed an association between phone interruptions and a decrease in error detection during simulated validation. Simulation provides an opportunity to study order validation by pharmacists and may be a valuable teaching tool for pharmacists and pharmacy residents learning order validation.

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