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Nat Prod Res. 2019 Jan 2:1-5. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1543684. [Epub ahead of print]

Phytochemical profiling, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and cytotoxic potential of Bougainvillea glabra flowers.

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a School of Pharmacy , Monash University , Bandar Sunway , Selangor Darul Ehsan , Malaysia.
b Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (IPS), University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences (UVAS) , Lahore , Pakistan.
c Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Monash University , Bandar Sunway , Selangor Darul Ehsan , Malaysia.
d Department of Biology, Faculty of Science , Selcuk University , Konya , Turkey.
e Department of Pharmacy , The Islamia University of Bahawalpur , Bahawalpur , Pakistan.
f Tropical Medicine and Biology Multidisciplinary Platform , Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway , Selangor Darul Ehsan , Malaysia.


In this study, phytochemical composition, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and cytotoxic activities of methanol and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Bougainvillea glabra (B. glabra) flowers were investigated. Methanol extract was found to have higher total bioactive contents and UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract revealed the presence of well-known phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Antioxidant activities were performed by radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC), phosphomolybdenum (TAC) and metal chelating assays. From our result, we observed that methanol extract had many antioxidant compounds. The DCM extract exhibited higher cholinesterases and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, while methanol extract showed significant urease inhibition. Both extracts exhibited strong to moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, CaSki, DU-145 and SW-480 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 88.49 to 304.7 µg/mL. The findings showed the B. glabra to possess considerable antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and cytotoxic potentials and therefore has potential to discover novel bioactive molecules.


Antioxidant; Bougainvillea glabra; Cytotoxicity; Enzyme inhibition; Phytochemical

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