Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Primates. 2019 Jan 1. doi: 10.1007/s10329-018-00707-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Grooming networks reveal intra- and intersexual social relationships in Macaca thibetana.

Author information

1
School of Life Science, Anhui University, Hefei, China.
2
Departments of Psychology and Global Health, Center for Global Field Study, and Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
3
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601, China.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA, USA.
5
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, 230601, China. jhli@ahu.edu.cn.
6
School of Life Science, Hefei Normal University, Hefei, China. jhli@ahu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The analysis of grooming networks is a powerful tool to examine individual social and sexual relationships and how these relationships change over time. In this study, we investigated the seasonal dynamics of intra- and intersexual social relationships in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) based on grooming interactions. Similar to other female philopatric and male dispersal primates, female Tibetan macaques form the core of the social group with higher values of centralities, compared to the males who tend to be distributed on the periphery of the grooming network. The results of this study indicate that females formed stable clusters with maternal kin-related female partners both during the mating and non-mating season. Males were not included in the females' clusters during the mating season, however, during the non-mating season high-ranking males joined females to form loosely connected clusters. Male-female clustering was associated with the frequency of grooming (bouts per hour) rather than grooming duration (bout length). Our results illustrate that Tibetan macaque social networks fluctuate in response to reproductive seasonality and appear to play a role in mating choice and male reproductive success. Moreover, our results indicate that the frequency of grooming interactions might be more effective than the duration of grooming interactions in establishing cluster pattern on group level. It appears that changes in male mating strategies may drive these shifting social relationships and networks. Future studies on Tibetan macaques will need to investigate the degree to which changes in male grooming strategies directly correlate with male reproductive success.

KEYWORDS:

Grooming; Intra- and intersexual relationships; Macaca thibetana; Social network

PMID:
30600420
DOI:
10.1007/s10329-018-00707-8

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center