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Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2019 Jan-Mar;6(1):86-93. doi: 10.4103/apjon.apjon_59_18.

Cancer Screening and Diagnostic Tests in Global Contexts: Case Study and Concept Analysis.

Author information

1
College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea.
3
Deayang College of Nursing, Deayang University, Lilongwe, Malawi.
4
Deayang Luke Hospital, Deayang University, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Abstract

Objective:

Although the purposes and outcomes of screening and diagnostic tests are different, they are often confused. Therefore, it is important to delineate the clinical concept of cancer screening tests to be clear in our communication not only among healthcare professionals but also with client populations. The aim of this study is to both describe and analyze the concept of cancer screening and explain their practical meaning in global contexts.

Methods:

Comparative case studies of cervical and liver cancer screening tests were used as the basis for developing an understanding of a specific concept (phenomenon) of cancer screening and for delineating the relationships between factors that cause screening to occur.

Results:

A cancer screening is defined as an action taken by both the patient and health-care provider to detect a possible pre-cancerous condition among healthy and asymptomatic individuals who are at sufficient risk of a specific disorder to warrant further investigation or treatment. The case study-based concept analysis has been shown to be useful for improving our understanding of the multi-dimensional nature of the concept in global contexts.

Conclusions:

New paradigms maximizing participation in cancer screening to detect diseases before symptoms are manifested rather than focusing on diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic infectious diseases need to be developed and implemented.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer nursing; cancer screening; global health disparities; health transition; sociocultural factor Introduction

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