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Adv Biomed Res. 2018 Nov 28;7:149. doi: 10.4103/abr.abr_135_18. eCollection 2018.

Stem Cell Markers SOX-2 and OCT-4 Enable to Resolve the Diagnostic Dilemma between Ameloblastic Carcinoma and Aggressive Solid Multicystic Ameloblastoma.

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Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.



Ameloblastic carcinoma (ACA) is a malignant neoplasm with overlapping histopathological features of benign aggressive solid multicystic ameloblastoma (SMA). This often leads to misdiagnosis with direct implication on the management protocol. The need of the hour is to adopt reliable tissue biomarkers to differentiate these lesions accurately that will help to implement an appropriate treatment modality. Few studies to differentiate ACA and SMA in literature with a limitation of a single marker and lack of availability of cases have prompted us to undertake this study. Thereby, this study is aimed at resolving the diagnostic dilemma in differentiating ACA and aggressive SMA using SOX-2, OCT-4 and CD44.

Materials and Methods:

Tissue samples involved 40 archival cases of histopathologically confirmed cases of ACA (n = 20) and SMA (n = 20). The sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to SOX-2, OCT-4 and CD44. Nuclear staining for SOX-2 and OCT-4 and membranous reactivity for CD44 was considered positive.


The expression of SOX-2 and OCT-4 in ACA was statistically significant when compared to SMA (P < 0.001). CD44 showed an insignificant statistical value of <0.077 in differentiating ACA and SMA. SOX-2 and OCT-4 expression in ACA showed a significant correlation coefficient of 0.616 at P < 0.004.


SOX-2 and OCT-4 could serve as independent novel markers in resolving the diagnostic dilemma between ACA and aggressive SMA.


Ameloblastic carcinoma; CD44; OCT-4; SOX-2; solid multicystic ameloblastoma

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