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J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2018 Nov-Dec;8(6):553-559. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_197_18. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Oral Cancer Screening among Smokers and Nonsmokers.

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Department of General Dentistry, University of Maryland, School of Dentistry, USA.
Department of General Dental Practice, Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Biostatistics Unit, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait.


Aims and Objectives:

The aim of visual systematic screening is early identification of oral cancer (OC) precursor lesion. OC mortality improves when cancer is identified at early stages. This is important in patients whose lifestyle choices render them at higher risk of developing OC. This study described the prevalence of OC screening among smokers and nonsmokers in Kuwait and ascertained demographic predictors.

Materials and Methods:

This cross-sectional study utilized a self-administered online survey in English and Arabic through Survey Monkey® and disseminated using the social networking app "WhatsApp." The survey included 21 questions on demographics, smoking status, and knowledge of OC. Screening questions were adopted from the Maryland Cancer Screening and Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed using the computer software "Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS version 24.0" (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA).


The study included 404 Kuwaiti respondents, 311 (77%) nonsmokers and 93 (23%) smokers. Prevalence of OC screening was 7.2, 7.7% among nonsmokers and 5.4% in smokers. Only 36.6% were aware of OC, with more nonsmokers (38.9%) than smokers (29%). Logistic regression revealed twice more males likely to go for screening than females and with the likelihood of those being in the age group of 25-44 years four times more (P < 0.012) than other age groups.


There was low prevalence of screening and poor awareness of OC among sampled. Increased efforts are needed by health professionals to spread awareness and improve knowledge on OC and demand the inclusion of screening during their routine and opportunistic oral examinations.


Oral cancer; predictors; screening; smoking

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