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Pathology. 2019 Feb;51(2):148-154. doi: 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.006. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Non-HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B compared with LDL-cholesterol in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment.

Author information

1
School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
2
School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Perth Hospital and Fiona Stanley Hospital Network, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Perth, WA, Australia.
3
Department of Chemical Pathology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.
4
School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Perth Hospital and Fiona Stanley Hospital Network, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address: john.burnett@health.wa.gov.au.

Abstract

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the predominant atherogenic lipoprotein particle in the circulation. Conventionally, a fasting lipid profile has been used for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment. A non-fasting sample is now regarded as a suitable alternative to a fasting sample. In routine clinical practice, the Friedewald equation is used to estimate LDL-cholesterol, but it has limitations. Commercially available direct measures of LDL-cholesterol are not standardised. LDL-cholesterol is a well-established risk factor for ASCVD, being the primary therapeutic target in both primary and secondary prevention. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is a measure of the cholesterol content in the atherogenic lipoproteins, but it does not reflect the particle number. Non-HDL-cholesterol has the advantage over LDL-cholesterol of including remnant cholesterol and being independent of triglyceride variability, but it is compromised by the non-specificity bias of direct HDL-cholesterol methods used in the calculation. Apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major structural protein in very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, LDL and lipoprotein (a), is a measure of the number of atherogenic lipoproteins. ApoB methods are standardised, but the assay comes at an additional, albeit relatively low cost. Non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are more accurate measures than LDL-cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemic individuals, non-fasting samples, and in those with very-low LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB are superior to LDL-cholesterol in predicting ASCVD risk, and both have been designated as secondary targets in some treatment guidelines. We review the measurement, potential role, utility and current status of non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB when compared with LDL-cholesterol in ASCVD risk assessment.

KEYWORDS:

LDL-cholesterol; Lipids; apolipoprotein B; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; non-HDL-cholesterol; risk assessment

PMID:
30595507
DOI:
10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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