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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Dec 26. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0964. [Epub ahead of print]

Increase in Reported Cholera Cases in Haiti Following Hurricane Matthew: An Interrupted Time Series Model.

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Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Global Immunization Division, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
MSPP Haiti, Directorate of Epidemiology, Laboratory and Research, Delmas, Haiti.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Haiti, Tabarre, Haiti.
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.


Matthew, a category 4 hurricane, struck Haiti on October 4, 2016, causing widespread flooding and damage to buildings and crops, and resulted in many deaths. The damage caused by Matthew raised concerns of increased cholera transmission particularly in Sud and Grand'Anse departments, regions which were hit most heavily by the storm. To evaluate the change in reported cholera cases following Hurricane Matthew on reported cholera cases, we used interrupted time series regression models of daily reported cholera cases, controlling for the impact of both rainfall, following a 4-week lag, and seasonality, from 2013 through 2016. Our results indicate a significant increase in reported cholera cases after Matthew, suggesting that the storm resulted in an immediate surge in suspect cases, and a decline in reported cholera cases in the 46-day post-storm period, after controlling for rainfall and seasonality. Regression models stratified by the department indicate that the impact of the hurricane was regional, with larger surges in the two most highly storm-affected departments: Sud and Grand'Anse. These models were able to provide input to the Ministry of Health in Haiti on the national and regional impact of Hurricane Matthew and, with further development, could provide the flexibility of use in other emergency situations. This article highlights the need for continued cholera prevention and control efforts, particularly in the wake of natural disasters such as hurricanes, and the continued need for intensive cholera surveillance nationally.


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