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Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018 Dec 29;9(1):355. doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-1099-3.

Generation of pancreatic β cells for treatment of diabetes: advances and challenges.

Author information

1
Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Biotechnology and IDASI (Incurable Disease Animal model & Stem cell Institute), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, South Korea.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh.
3
Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Biotechnology and IDASI (Incurable Disease Animal model & Stem cell Institute), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, South Korea. ssangoo@konkuk.ac.kr.

Abstract

Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are considered attractive sources of pancreatic β cells and islet organoids. Recently, several reports presented that hESC/iPSC-derived cells enriched with specific transcription factors can form glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells in vitro and transplantation of these cells ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. However, the glucose-stimulated insulin-secreting capacity of these cells is lower than that of endogenous islets, suggesting the need to improve induction procedures. One of the critical problems facing in vivo maturation of hESC/iPSC-derived cells is their low survival rate after transplantation, although this rate increases when the implanted pancreatic cells are encapsulated to avoid the immune response. Several groups have also reported on the generation of hESC/iPSC-derived islet-like organoids, but development of techniques for complete islet structures with the eventual generation of vascularized constructs remains a major challenge to their application in regenerative therapies. Many issues also need to be addressed before the successful clinical application of hESC/iPSC-derived cells or islet organoids. In this review, we summarize advances in the generation of hESC/iPSC-derived pancreatic β cells or islet organoids and discuss the limitations and challenges for their successful therapeutic application in diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Differentiation; Embryonic stem cells (ESC); Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC); Islet organoids; Pancreatic β cell; Transplantation; β Cell maturation

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