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J Infect Dis. 2018 Dec 27. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy731. [Epub ahead of print]

Interspecies transmission, genetic diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of pseudorabies virus.

Author information

1
MOE International Joint Collaborative Research Laboratory for Animal Health & Food Safety, Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Institute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
2
Département de microbiologie-infectiologie et d'immunologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.
3
Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Shanghai, China.
4
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
5
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.
6
Key laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
7
College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China.
8
Institute for Virology, Center for Infection Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, Free University Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag-Straße 7-13, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

Background:

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) causes Aujeszky's disease in pigs and can be transmitted to other mammals, including humans. Here, we systematically studied the interspecies transmission and evolutionary history of PRV.

Methods:

We performed comprehensive analysis on the phylodynamics, selection, and structural biology to summarize the phylogenetic and adaptive evolution of PRV based on all available full-length and major glycoprotein sequences.

Results:

PRV can be divided into two main clades with frequent inter-clade and intra-clade recombination. Clade 2.2 (variant PRV) is currently the most prevalent genotype worldwide, and most commonly involved in cross-species transmission events (including humans). We also found that the population size of clade 2.2 has increased since 2011 and the effective reproduction number was greater than 1 from 2011 to 2016, indicating that PRV may be still circulating in swine herds and is still a risk in relation with cross-species transmission in China. Of note, we identified amino acid sites in some important glycoproteins gB, gC, gD and gE that may be associated with PRV adaptation to new hosts and immune escape to vaccines.

Conclusions:

Our study provides important genetic insight into the inter-species transmission and evolution of PRV within and between different hosts that warrant additional surveillance.

PMID:
30590733
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiy731

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