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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018 Dec 25;86:965-973. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.12.051. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparative immunostimulatory effect of probiotics and prebiotics in Channa punctatus against Aphanomyces invadans.

Author information

1
Department of Zoology, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti, 621 007, Tamil Nadu, India.
2
Department of Zoology, Pachaiyappa's College for Men, Kanchipuram 631 501, Tamil Nadu, India.
3
Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: bparay@ksu.edu.sa.
4
Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
5
Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
6
Department of Herbal and Environmental Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur, 613 005, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

In aquaculture and human health care probiotics and prebiotics have been widely used due to their important role in enhancing beneficial gut microbiota, promoting growth, increasing disease resistance, and positively modulating the host immune system. This study reports for the first time a comparative analysis on the effect of the probiotics and prebiotics on growth, digestive enzymes activity, antioxidant activity, and immune response in Channa punctatus against Aphanomyces invadans. Among the diets enriched with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Galactooligosaccharide (GOS) in C. punctatus, feeding 2.5 g kg-1 diet did not significantly influence the mean weight gain (MWG) between weeks 2 and 4 in both the infected and control groups; however the increase in MWG became significant from weeks 6-8. Similarly, during this period the protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein intake (PI) did not increase significantly. The intestinal protease, lipase, and amylase enzyme activities also did not increase significantly between weeks 2 and 4, whereas the values increased significantly after 6 weeks in both groups when fed with dietary supplementation of S. cerevisiae and GOS. The total S. cerevisiae count significantly increased in the gut of infected and non-infected fish fed with S. cerevisiae and GOS diets while the total bacterial (TB) count decreased between weeks 6 and 8. The total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) activity and the malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration increased significantly in the non-infected fish fed with S. cerevisiae and GOS supplementation diets between weeks 6 and 8 whereas the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased significantly only on week 8. The innate immune parameters such as plasma lysozyme, acid phosphatase (ACP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities increased significantly in the infected and non-infected fish fed with S. cerevisiae and GOS containing diets after 6 weeks. Similarly, the plasma nitric oxide (NO) level and total protein (TP) content significantly increased in the non-infected fish fed with S. cerevisiae and GOS containing diets between weeks 6 and 8. In the control and the non-infected fish fed with S. cerevisiae and GOS enriched diets caused no mortality whereas 15% and 10% mortality was observed in the infected fish fed with S. cerevisiae and GOS diets, respectively. This study indicates that the infected and non-infected C. punctatus fed with dietary supplementation of GOS diet at 2.5 g kg-1 had exhibited better growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, gut microbiota composition, and immune response than that of S. cerevisiae diet.

KEYWORDS:

Aphanomyces invadans; Channa punctatus; Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS); Galactooligosaccharide (GOS); Prebiotics; Probiotics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae

PMID:
30590159
DOI:
10.1016/j.fsi.2018.12.051

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