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Front Neuroendocrinol. 2019 Jan;52:206-218. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2018.12.005. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Conditioned hormonal responses: A systematic review in animals and humans.

Author information

1
Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: a.skvortsova@fsw.leidenuniv.nl.
2
Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands.
3
Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, the Netherlands.
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands.
5
Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Health Sciences, Campus Lerma, Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM), 52006 Lerma, Edo Mex, Mexico.
6
Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, 2333 AK Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands.

Abstract

In contrast to classical conditioning of physiological responses such as immune responses and drug effects, only a limited number of studies investigated classical conditioning of endocrine responses. The present paper is the first systematic review that integrates evidence from animal and human trials regarding the possibility to condition the endocrine responses. Twenty-six animal and eight human studies were included in the review. We demonstrated that there is accumulating evidence that classical conditioning processes are able to influence specific endocrine responses, such as cortocosterone/cortisol and insulin, while more limited evidence exists for other hormones. Animal and human studies were generally consistent in their findings; however, the limited number of human studies makes it difficult to generalize and translate the results of animal research to humans. Next to methodological recommendations for future studies, we suggest several ways how classically conditioned endocrine responses can be used in clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

Associative learning; Classical conditioning; Endocrine; Hormones

PMID:
30590067
DOI:
10.1016/j.yfrne.2018.12.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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