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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2018 Nov-Dec;29(6):1350-1357. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.248312.

Arteriovenous fistula outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

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Katz Family Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA.


Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) remodeling is an active area of research in vascular biology given the high rates of primary failure, complications, and cost burden for the health-care system. Comorbidities such as diabetes and different types of vascular disease are known to influence AVFs outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of immunosuppression, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, on AVF primary failure and patency. This retrospective study assessed the impact of HIV infection and T-cell counts on AVF outcomes. Using a retrospective cohort of 495 patients, we compared the risk of AVF primary failure and primary unassisted patency on HIV-positive and nonimmunocompromised individuals using logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazard models. Within the HIV-infected subset (n = 43), we analyzed the association between immunological parameters such as T-cell counts and primary failure. Positive predictors of primary failure were HIV infection [odds ratio (OR) = 3.09, P = 0.002] and history of a previous AVF (OR = 2.18, P = 0.003). However, there was no difference in primary unassisted patency between HIV-positive and negative individuals after excluding primary failure cases. There was no association between T-cell subset counts and AVF outcomes. Our results indicate that HIV-positive individuals have a higher risk of AVF primary failure than nonimmunocompromised patients. However, this increased susceptibility is not explained by the degree of immunosuppression.

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