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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2018 Nov-Dec;29(6):1311-1319. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.248293.

Impact of Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia on survival in patients with hepatorenal failure.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.


Enterobacteriaceae are now the predominant pathogens isolated in patients with liver cell failure associated with bloodstream infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who were admitted for the diagnosis of hepatorenal failure (HRF) between June 1999 and May 2008 to investigate the risk factors of Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia (EB). EB was defined as the isolation of an EB species from at least one blood culture within three months following diagnosis of HRF. Variables were collected from the medical records and analyzed in relation to EB. Twenty-four (32.5%) of the 73 patients developed EB. The origin of EB was abdominal in 21% of the patients, urinary in 12.5%, pulmonary in 16.5%, and primary in the remaining patients (50%). Two-thirds of EB occurred within 10 days following the development of HRF. The main pathogens were Escherichia coli (44%), Enterobacter species (20%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22%). Eighteen patients (75%) with EB died. Variables significantly associated with EB after multivariate analysis were a model for end-stage liver disease score >20 [odds ratio (OR): 2.84, P <0.02], posthepatitis B liver cirrhosis (OR: 4.72, P <0.05), posthepatitis C liver cirrhosis (OR: 3.48, P <0.05), and initial level of serum creatinine on admission to intensive care unit (OR: 2.56, P <0.02). EB is a frequent and severe complication of HRF. Patients with posthepatitis cirrhosis B and C, higher serum creatinine, and severe liver cell failure score have a high risk of developing EB.

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