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Niger Postgrad Med J. 2018 Oct-Dec;25(4):246-251. doi: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_115_18.

Review of 109 cases of primary malignant orofacial lesions seen at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.

Author information

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
2
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Abstract

Background:

Orofacial malignancy is a growing health issue common in developing regions of the world. Presentation patterns are myriad with geographic variations. Advanced stage owing to late presentation constitutes a significant public health burden. The site and type of the lesions are valuable in diagnosis and patient management.

Aim:

This study aims to review cases of primary orofacial malignancies at the OAUTHC Dental Hospital.

Objectives:

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of histologically diagnosed orofacial malignancies, the relative frequencies, types and site of distribution.

Materials and Methods:

Records of patients with orofacial malignancies at the OAUTHC, Dental Hospital over a period of 10 years (January 2008-December 2017) were reviewed, demographic data (age, gender and site), history of tobacco use were retrieved and entered into a pro forma. The data obtained were analysed with STATA 11. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results:

Of 375, 109 cases of neoplasms seen were primary malignant tumours, with prevalence rate of 29.1%. There were 71 (65.1%) males and 38 (34.9%) females (male:female ratio of 1.87:1), mean age (48.7 ± 19.3 years) and range (4-94 years). Affected sites were mandible (41, 37.6%), maxilla (39, 35.8%), palate (17, 15.6%) and others. Lesions were mainly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC: 46, 42.2%), salivary gland adenocarcinomas (SGAs, 25, 22.9%) including 8 (32%) cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Others were odontogenic carcinoma (18, 16.5%) and lymphoma (8, 7.3%). Most specimen analysed were hard tissues (n = 63, 57.8%). Thirty-four (73.9%) cases of SCC and 66 (60.6%) cases of primary malignancies were in the 5th-9th decades of life. This was statistically significant at P = 0.000.

Conclusion:

SCC was more prevalent than salivary and odontogenic carcinomas. ACC and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were two most common SGAs. Metastatic tumours to the jaws are rare.

KEYWORDS:

Adenoid cystic carcinoma; lymphoma; mucoepidermoid carcinoma; orofacial malignancies; squamous cell carcinoma

PMID:
30588946
DOI:
10.4103/npmj.npmj_115_18
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