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Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Mar;176(6):757-772. doi: 10.1111/bph.14561. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

A novel nitroalkene-α-tocopherol analogue inhibits inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in Apo E knockout mice.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Vascular Biology and Drug Development, INDICYO Program, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay.
2
Departmento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
3
Analytical Biochemistry and Proteomics Unit, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay.
4
Pathophysiology Department, Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
5
Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
6
Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases and Aging, INDICYO Program, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation with concomitant lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties have been described for a novel class of endogenous nitroalkenes (nitrated-unsaturated fatty acids), formed during inflammation and digestion/absorption processes. The lipid-associated antioxidant α-tocopherol is transported systemically by LDL particles including to the atheroma lesions. To capitalize on the overlapping and complementary salutary properties of endogenous nitroalkenes and α-tocopherol, we designed and synthesized a novel nitroalkene-α-tocopherol analogue (NATOH) to address chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis, particularly at the lesion sites.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

We synthesized NATOH, determined its electrophilicity and antioxidant capacity and studied its effects over pro-inflammatory and cytoprotective pathways in macrophages in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated its incorporation into lipoproteins and tissue both in vitro and in vivo, and determined its effect on atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses in vivo using the Apo E knockout mice model.

KEY RESULTS:

NATOH exhibited similar antioxidant capacity to α-tocopherol and, due to the presence of the nitroalkenyl group, like endogenous nitroalkenes, it exerted electrophilic reactivity. NATOH was incorporated in vivo into the VLDL/LDL lipoproteins particles to reach the atheroma lesions. Furthermore, oral administration of NATOH down-regulated NF-κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory markers (including IL-1β and adhesion molecules) and ameliorated atherosclerosis in Apo E knockout mice.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

In toto, the data demonstrate a novel pharmacological strategy for the prevention of atherosclerosis based on a creative, natural and safe drug delivery system of a non-conventional anti-inflammatory compound (NATOH) with significant potential for clinical application.

PMID:
30588602
PMCID:
PMC6393233
[Available on 2020-03-01]
DOI:
10.1111/bph.14561

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