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Chin J Traumatol. 2018 Dec;21(6):366-368. doi: 10.1016/j.cjtee.2018.04.006. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Phantom limb pain: A literature review.

Author information

1
California School of Podiatric Medicine, Samuel Merritt University, Oakland, CA 94601, USA.
2
California School of Podiatric Medicine, Samuel Merritt University, Oakland, CA 94601, USA. Electronic address: yuxi.guan@samuelmerritt.edu.

Abstract

Since the phantom limb sensation was first described by the French military surgeon Ambroise Pare in the 16th century, the number of studies surrounding phantom limb pain has increased every year. Especially in recent decades, scientists have achieved a better understanding of the mechanism and treatment of phantom limb pain. Although many hypotheses have been agreed and many treatments have been proven effective, scientists still do not have a very systematic understanding of the phantom limbs. The purpose of this review article is to summarize recent researches focusing on phantom limb in order to discuss its definition, mechanisms, and treatments.

KEYWORDS:

Amputation; Lower extremity; Neurologic mechanisms; Phantom limb pain; Therapeutics

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