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Am J Med Genet A. 2019 Mar;179(3):381-385. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61020. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Anomalies of the genitourinary tract in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Division of Urology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Division of Human Genetics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Division of Nephrology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.


The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) involves multiple organ systems with variable phenotypic expression. Genitourinary tract abnormalities have been noted to be present in up to 30-40% of patients. At our institution, an internationally recognized, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary 22q11.2DS care center has been providing care to these children. We sought to report on the incidence of genitourinary tract anomalies in this large cohort and, therefore, retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent a complete evaluation from 1992 to March 2017. We identified all children with any genital or urinary tract anomaly. For all children with a diagnosis of hydronephrosis, the underlying etiology was determined, when possible. Overall, 1,073 of 1,267 children with 22q11.2DS underwent renal evaluations at our institution. Hundered Sixty-Two (15.1%) children had structural abnormalities of their kidneys/urinary tracts. The majority of children with hydronephrosis (63%) had isolated upper tract dilation without any additional diagnoses. Boys were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a genital abnormality than girls (7.7 vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001). Of the 649 boys in the entire cohort, 24 (3.7%) had cryptorchidism and 24 (3.7%) had hypospadias, which was noted to be mild in all except one boy. Overall, findings of hydronephrosis, unilateral renal agenesis, and multicystic dysplastic kidney occur at higher rates than expected in the general population. Given these findings, in addition to routine physical examination, we believe that all patients with 22q11.2DS warrant screening RBUS at time of diagnosis.


22q11.2 deletion syndrome; DiGeorge syndrome; genitourinary; pediatrics; renal; urology

[Available on 2020-03-01]

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