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PeerJ. 2018 Dec 11;6:e6066. doi: 10.7717/peerj.6066. eCollection 2018.

Changes in intentional binding effect during a novel perceptual-motor task.

Author information

Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Kitakatsuragi, Nara, Japan.
Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University, Kitakatsuragi, Nara, Japan.
Department of Rehabilitation, Kishiwada Rehabilitation Hospital, Kishiwada, Osaka, Japan.
Department of Rehabilitation, Ishida Clinic, Osaka, Japan.


Perceptual-motor learning describes the process of improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements. Intentional binding (IB) is a phenomenon whereby the length of time between performing a voluntary action and the production of a sensory outcome during perceptual-motor control is perceived as being shorter than the reality. How IB may change over the course of perceptual-motor learning, however, has not been explicitly investigated. Here, we developed a set of IB tasks during perceptual-motor learning. Participants were instructed to stop a circular moving object by key press when it reached the center of a target circle on the display screen. The distance between the center of the target circle and the center of the moving object was measured, and the error was used to approximate the perceptual-motor performance index. This task also included an additional exercise that was unrelated to the perceptual-motor task: after pressing the key, a sound was presented after a randomly chosen delay of 200, 500, or 700 ms and the participant had to estimate the delay interval. The difference between the estimated and actual delay was used as the IB value. A cluster analysis was then performed using the error values from the first and last task to group the participants based on their perceptual-motor performance. Participants showing a very small change in error value, and thus demonstrating a small effect of perceptual-motor learning, were classified into cluster 1. Those who exhibited a large decrease in error value from the first to the last set, and thus demonstrated a strong improvement in perceptual-motor performance, were classified into cluster 2. Those who exhibited perceptual-motor learning also showed improvements in the IB value. Our data suggest that IB is elevated when perceptual-motor learning occurs.


Intentional binding; Perceptual learning; Perceptual-motor task; Sense of agency

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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