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Schizophr Res. 2019 Apr;206:142-148. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.11.037. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Validation of the MUSIC Model of Motivation Inventory for use with cognitive training for schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A multinational study.

Author information

1
Long Island University Brooklyn, Department of Clinical Psychology, 1 University Plaza, Brooklyn, NY 11201, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address: marie.hansen@my.liu.edu.
2
Virginia Tech, School of Education, 310B War Memorial Hall (0313), Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States. Electronic address: brettjones@vt.edu.
3
University of Pittsburgh, School of Social Work and Department of Psychiatry, 2117 Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States. Electronic address: sme12@pitt.edu.
4
Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Kildegaardsvej 28, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark. Electronic address: louise.birkedal.glenthoej@regionh.dk.
5
National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1, Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8533, Japan. Electronic address: satoru.ikezawa@yale.edu.
6
Kyoto Prefectural Rakunan Hospital, 2 Hirookadani Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan. Electronic address: t-iwane4649@rakunan-hosp.jp.
7
University of Toronto, Department of Psychiatry, CAMH, 1001 Queen St. W., Unit 2-1, Toronto, ON M6J1H4, Canada. Electronic address: sean.kidd@camh.ca.
8
McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 6875 LaSalle Blvd, Verdun, Qc H4H 1R3, Canada. Electronic address: martin.lepage@mcgill.ca.
9
Manhattan Psychiatric Center, Wards Island Complex, New York, NY 10035, United States; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, United States; New York University Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY, United States.
10
Manhattan Psychiatric Center, Wards Island Complex, New York, NY 10035, United States; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, United States.
11
National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1, Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8533, Japan. Electronic address: keikom@ncnp.go.jp.
12
Nara Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, 840 Shijo-Cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan.
13
National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1, Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8533, Japan. Electronic address: nakagome@ncnp.go.jp.
14
Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Kildegaardsvej 28, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark. Electronic address: mn@dadlnet.dk.
15
Manhattan Psychiatric Center, Wards Island Complex, New York, NY 10035, United States.
16
Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 6875 Boul. Lasalle, Verdun, QC H4H 1R3, Canada. Electronic address: danielle.penney@douglas.mcgill.ca.
17
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address: Alice.Saperstein@nyspi.columbia.edu.
18
National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1, Ogawa-Higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8533, Japan. Electronic address: asunaga@ncnp.go.jp.
19
San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4150 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, United States. Electronic address: svinogra@umn.edu.
20
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen St. W., Unit 2-1, M6J1H4 Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address: gursharan.virdee@camh.ca.
21
University of Pittsburgh, School of Social Work and Department of Psychiatry, 2117 Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States.
22
New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and NewYork-Presbyterian, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY, 10032, United States. Electronic address: am2938@cumc.columbia.edu.

Abstract

AIM:

Low motivation is a core symptom of schizophrenia which significantly impacts successful engagement in and benefit from psychosocial treatments. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to design psychosocial treatments to effectively motivate and engage patients during the treatment. The MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (MMI) is an 18-item instrument with five scales that assess students' motivation during academic tasks. The objective of the current study was to validate the MMI for use with schizophrenia-spectrum patients undergoing cognitive training.

METHODS:

Participants included 181 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders enrolled in cognitive training in four countries. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) assessed construct validity. Quality of fit was determined using the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR), and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). Pearson's correlation coefficients assessed construct validity and Cronbach's alphas assessed reliability. Furthermore, we examined factor loadings for each inventory item and assessed predictive validity by analyzing MMI scales with attendance outcomes.

RESULTS:

Consistent with the original MMI validation studies used in academic settings, we found CFI values indicated a good fit, as did the SRMR and RMSEA values. The scales were correlated yet distinct. Cronbach's alpha values ranged from good to excellent and factor loadings showed that all items loaded very well onto their intended factors. The MMI had a positive relationship to treatment intensity.

CONCLUSION:

The MMI is a valid and reliable tool to use with individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders undergoing a cognitive training intervention.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive remediation; MUSIC Model of Motivation; Motivation; Schizophrenia; Skills training

PMID:
30580895
PMCID:
PMC6525643
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.schres.2018.11.037

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