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Neuroscience. 2019 Feb 10;399:28-38. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.12.013. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Advances in Cerebral Organoid Systems and their Application in Disease Modeling.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University (CSU), Changsha, China.
2
Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China; Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Chinese National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders (xiangya), Chinese National Technology Institute on Mental Disorders, Hunan Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University (CSU), Changsha, China. Electronic address: zhixiongliu@csu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Processes associated with human brain development and function are exceedingly complex, limiting our capacity to investigate disease status and potential treatment strategies in vitro. Recent advancements in human cerebral organoid systems-which replicate early stage neural tube formation, neuroepithelium differentiation, and whole-brain regional differentiation-have allowed researchers to generate more accurate models of brain development and disease. The generation of region-specific cerebral organoids also allows for the direct investigation of the etiology and pathological processes associated with inherited and acquired brain diseases, drug discovery, and drug toxicity. In this review, we provide an overview of various neural differentiation technologies, as well as a critical analysis of their strengths and limitations. We primarily focus on the generation of three-dimensional brain organoid systems and their application in infectious disease modeling, high-throughput compound screening, and neurodevelopmental disease modeling.

KEYWORDS:

3D culture; biomedical application; brain formation; cerebral organoid; in vitro model; neurodevelopmental disease

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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