Send to

Choose Destination
IUBMB Life. 2018 Dec 22. doi: 10.1002/iub.1988. [Epub ahead of print]

Vitamin E: Regulatory role of metabolites.

Author information

Department of Nutrition, Food and Consumer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Fulda, Fulda, Germany.
Department of Nutritional Biochemistry and Physiology, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.
Competence Center for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.


Vitamin E plays an important role as a lipophilic antioxidant in cellular redox homeostasis. Besides this function, numerous non-antioxidant properties of this vitamin have been discovered in the past. DNA microarray technology revealed a complex regulatory network influenced by the different vitamin E forms (Rimbach et al., Molecules, 15, 1746 (2010); Galli et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med., 102, 16 (2017)); however, little is known about the biological activity of vitamin E metabolites. A new chapter of vitamin E research was been opened when endogenous long-chain tocopherol metabolites were identified and their high biological activity in vitro and in vivo was recognized (Schmölz et al., World J. Biol. Chem., 7, 14 (2016); Torquato et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 124, 399 (2016)). Just recently, it was shown that an endogenous metabolite of vitamin E inhibits 5-lipoxygenase at nanomolar concentrations, thereby limiting inflammation (Pein et al., Nat. Commun., 9, 3834 (2018)). Furthermore, long-chain vitamin E metabolites (LCM) exhibit hormone-like activities similar to the lipid soluble vitamins A and D (Galli et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med., 102, 16 (2017); Schubert et al., Antioxidants, 7 (2018)). This review aims at summarizing recent findings on the regulatory activities of vitamin E metabolites, especially of LCMs.


carboxy-chromanes; inflammation; metabolites; vitamin E


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center