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Vaccine. 2019 Jan 21;37(4):645-651. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.008. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

The potential effects of introducing microneedle patch vaccines into routine vaccine supply chains.

Author information

1
Global Obesity Prevention Center (GOPC) at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; HERMES Logistics Modeling Team, Baltimore, MD and Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
2
HERMES Logistics Modeling Team, Baltimore, MD and Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
HERMES Logistics Modeling Team, Baltimore, MD and Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
4
VillageReach, Seattle, WA, USA.
5
HERMES Logistics Modeling Team, Baltimore, MD and Pittsburgh, PA, USA; McGill Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, McGill Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
6
Global Obesity Prevention Center (GOPC) at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; HERMES Logistics Modeling Team, Baltimore, MD and Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: brucelee@jhu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Microneedle patch (MNP) technology is designed to simplify the process of vaccine administration; however, depending on its characteristics, MNP technology may provide additional benefits beyond the point-of-use, particularly for vaccine supply chains.

METHODS:

Using the HERMES modeling software, we examined replacing four routine vaccines - Measles-containing vaccine (MCV), Tetanus toxoid (TT), Rotavirus (Rota) and Pentavalent (Penta) - with MNP versions in the routine vaccine supply chains of Benin, Bihar (India), and Mozambique.

RESULTS:

Replacing MCV with an MNP (5 cm3-per-dose, 2-month thermostability, current single-dose price-per-dose) improved MCV availability by 13%, 1% and 6% in Benin, Bihar and Mozambique, respectively, and total vaccine availability by 1% in Benin and Mozambique, while increasing the total cost per dose administered by $0.07 in Benin, $0.56 in Bihar and $0.11 in Mozambique. Replacing TT with an MNP improved TT and total vaccine availability (3% and <1%) in Mozambique only, when the patch was 5 cm3 and 2-months thermostable but increased total cost per dose administered by $0.14. Replacing Rota with an MNP (at 5-15 cm3-per-dose, 1-2 month thermostable) improved Rota and total vaccine availability, but only improved Rota vaccine availability in Bihar (at 5 cm3, 1-2 months thermostable), while decreasing total vaccine availability by 1%. Finally, replacing Penta with an MNP (at 5 cm3, 2-months thermostable) improved Penta vaccine availability by 1-8% and total availability by <1-9%.

CONCLUSIONS:

An MNP for MCV, TT, Rota, or Penta would need to have a smaller or equal volume-per-dose than existing vaccine formulations and be able to be stored outside the cold chain for a continuous period of at least two months to provide additional benefits to all three supply chains under modeled conditions.

KEYWORDS:

Delivery; Logistics; Microneedle patch; Supply chain

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